Hearing vs Reading the Bible

The play between orality and literacy in Jethro

When did the Israelites become literate?

If you piece the clues together, the Torah tells us pretty clearly that Moses received the alphabet from God on Sinai.  It happens during the same sequence of revelations that begin with the burning bush and the revelation of God’s Name during their first encounter. God tells Moses to return to Egypt and instruct the elders of Israel in “the signs” or “letters” that God shows him.  Moses quails at his assignment..

“If they don’t heed the voice of the first sign, they will listen to the voice of the last sign,” God assures him.

The Aleph Tav
The first and last signs in Hebrew.

The first and last signs might refer to the silent conjuror’s tricks of turning a rod into a snake or turning Moses’ hand leprous that God has just shown Moses. But more sensibly, the “voice of the signs” refers to the first and last symbols for vocalizations, the core breakthrough that made the phonetic alphabet a monumentally disruptive invention.  Signs, instead of being pictures for words as in hieroglyphics, are instructions for the voice to make sounds, like musical notes. God is telling Moses: show the Israelites back in Egypt this new invention, these letters, and free them. Continue reading “Hearing vs Reading the Bible”